References & Literature

We ran out of space in the book, so here it is…

Desk-Paper-pile1-300x199

Below are the references used in the book. They are not ordered by page number but rather by the topic and sub topic, this makes them useful for someone with the book and someone who has not yet (“yet”) got a copy.

SOME FASTING REVIEWS AND GENERAL DISCUSSIONS

Johnstone, A. M. (2007). Fasting–the ultimate diet?. obesity reviews8(3), 211-222.

Varady, K. A., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2007). Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition86(1), 7-13.

Johnson, J. B., Laub, D. R., & John, S. (2006). The effect on health of alternate day calorie restriction: eating less and more than needed on alternate days prolongs life. Medical hypotheses67(2), 209-211.

Duan, W., Guo, Z., Jiang, H., Ware, M., & Mattson, M. P. (2003). Reversal of behavioral and metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance syndrome, by dietary restriction in mice deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor.Endocrinology144(6), 2446-2453.

SOME FASTING TRIALS IN HUMANS

Heilbronn, L. K., Smith, S. R., Martin, C. K., Anton, S. D., & Ravussin, E. (2005). Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. The American journal of clinical nutrition81(1), 69-73.

Klein, S. A. M. U. E. L., Sakurai, Y. O. I. C. H. I., Romijn, J. A., & Carroll, R. M. (1993). Progressive alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism during short-term fasting in young adult men. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism265(5), E801-E806.

Soules, M. R., Merriggiola, M. C., Steiner, R. A., Clifton, D. K., Toivola, B., & Bremner, W. J. (1994). Short‐term fasting in normal women: absence of effects on gonadotrophin secretion and the menstrual cycle. Clinical endocrinology,40(6), 725-731.

Duncan, G. G. (1963). Intermittent fasts in the correction and control of intractable obesity. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association74, 121..

Heilbronn, L. K., Smith, S. R., Martin, C. K., Anton, S. D., & Ravussin, E. (2005). Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. The American journal of clinical nutrition81(1), 69-73.

Heilbronn, L. K., Civitarese, A. E., Bogacka, I., Smith, S. R., Hulver, M., & Ravussin, E. (2005). Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle gene expression in response to alternate day fasting. Obesity research13(3), 574-581.

Halberg, N., Henriksen, M., Söderhamn, N., Stallknecht, B., Ploug, T., Schjerling, P., & Dela, F. (2005). Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. Journal of applied physiology99(6), 2128-2136.

Varady, K. A., Bhutani, S., Church, E. C., & Klempel, M. C. (2009). Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition,90(5), 1138-1143.

Varady, K. A., Roohk, D. J., Loe, Y. C., McEvoy-Hein, B. K., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2007). Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism, and plasma adiponectin levels in mice. Journal of lipid research48(10), 2212-2219.

Bergman, B. C., Cornier, M. A., Horton, T. J., & Bessesen, D. H. (2007). Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism,293(4), E1103-E1111.

Johnson, J. B., Summer, W., Cutler, R. G., Martin, B., Hyun, D. H., Dixit, V. D., … & Mattson, M. P. (2007). Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Free Radical Biology and Medicine,42(5), 665-674.

FASTING … AND NUTRIENT METABOLISM

Knapik, J. J., Meredith, C. N., Jones, B. H., Suek, L., Young, V. R., & Evans, W. J. (1988). Influence of fasting on carbohydrate and fat metabolism during rest and exercise in men. Journal of applied physiology64(5), 1923-1929.

Chan, J. L., Mietus, J. E., Raciti, P. M., Goldberger, A. L., & Mantzoros, C. S. (2007). Short‐term fasting‐induced autonomic activation and changes in catecholamine levels are not mediated by changes in leptin levels in healthy humans. Clinical endocrinology66(1), 49-57.

Soeters, M. R., Lammers, N. M., Dubbelhuis, P. F., Ackermans, M., Jonkers-Schuitema, C. F., Fliers, E., … & Serlie, M. J. (2009). Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism. The American journal of clinical nutrition90(5), 1244-1251.

Tunstall, R. J., Mehan, K. A., Hargreaves, M., Spriet, L. L., & Cameron-Smith, D. (2002). Fasting activates the gene expression of UCP3 independent of genes necessary for lipid transport and oxidation in skeletal muscle. Biochemical and biophysical research communications294(2), 301-308.

Norrelund, H., Nielsen, S., Christiansen, J. S., Jorgensen, J. O., & Moller, N. (2004). Modulation of basal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by growth hormone and free fatty acids during short-term fasting. European journal of endocrinology150(6), 779-787.

FASTING … AND HORMONE STATUS (also see Fasting in Women below)

Bergendahl, M., Aloi, J. A., Iranmanesh, A., Mulligan, T. M., & Veldhuis, J. D. (1998). Fasting suppresses pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and enhances orderliness of LH release in young but not older men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism83(6), 1967-1975.

Röjdmark, S. (1987). Influence of short-term fasting on the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men. Hormone Research in Paediatrics25(3), 140-146.

Klibanski A, Beitins IZ, Badger T, Little R, McArthur JW (1981). Reproductive function during fasting in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism53(2), 258-263..

Röjdmark, S., Asplund, A., & Rössner, S. (1989). Pituitary-testicular axis in obese men during short-term fasting. Acta endocrinologica121(5), 727-732..

Bergendahl, M., Vance, M. L., Iranmanesh, A., Thorner, M. O., & Veldhuis, J. D. (1996). Fasting as a metabolic stress paradigm selectively amplifies cortisol secretory burst mass and delays the time of maximal nyctohemeral cortisol concentrations in healthy men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,81(2), 692-699.

Salgin, B., Marcovecchio, M. L., Hill, N., Dunger, D. B., & Frystyk, J. (2012). The effect of prolonged fasting on levels of growth hormone-binding protein and free growth hormone. Growth Hormone & IGF Research22(2), 76-81.

Azizi, F. (1978). Effect of dietary composition on fasting-induced changes in serum thyroid hormones and thyrotropin. Metabolism27(8), 935-942.

FASTING … AND FAT LOSS & OBESITY

Varady, K. A., Bhutani, S., Church, E. C., & Klempel, M. C. (2009). Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition,90(5), 1138-1143.

Wing, R. R., Blair, E., Marcus, M., Epstein, L. H., & Harvey, J. (1994). Year-long weight loss treatment for obese patients with type II diabetes: does including an intermittent very-low-calorie diet improve outcome?. The American journal of medicine97(4), 354-362.

Stunkard, A. J., & Rush, J. (1974). Dieting and Depression ReexaminedA Critical Review of Reports of Untoward Responses During Weight Reduction for Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine81(4), 526-533.

Duncan, G. G. (1963). Intermittent fasts in the correction and control of intractable obesity. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association74, 121.

FASTING … ADIPONECTIN

Varady, K. A., Allister, C. A., Roohk, D. J., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2010). Improvements in body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin by alternate-day fasting versus calorie restriction. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry,21(3), 188-195.

Nielsen, T. S., Vendelbo, M. H., Jessen, N., Pedersen, S. B., Jørgensen, J. O., Lund, S., & Møller, N. (2011). Fasting, but not exercise, increases adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein and reduces G (0)/G (1) switch gene 2 (G0S2) protein and mRNA content in human adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism96(8), E1293-E12977

Tunstall, R. J., Mehan, K. A., Hargreaves, M., Spriet, L. L., & Cameron-Smith, D. (2002). Fasting activates the gene expression of UCP3 independent of genes necessary for lipid transport and oxidation in skeletal muscle. Biochemical and biophysical research communications294(2), 301-308.

Norrelund, H., Nielsen, S., Christiansen, J. S., Jorgensen, J. O., & Moller, N. (2004). Modulation of basal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by growth hormone and free fatty acids during short-term fasting. European journal of endocrinology150(6), 779-787.

Sandri, M. (2010). Autophagy in health and disease. 3. Involvement of autophagy in muscle atrophy. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology,298(6), C1291-C1297.

FASTING … AND SIRTUINS (AND DISEASE AND AGEING)

Haigis, M. C., & Guarente, L. P. (2006). Mammalian sirtuins—emerging roles in physiology, aging, and calorie restriction. Genes & development20(21), 2913-2921.

Kelly, G. (2010). A review of the sirtuin system, its clinical implications, and the potential role of dietary activators like resveratrol: part 1. Altern Med Rev15(3), 245-263.

Schwer, B., & Verdin, E. (2008). Conserved metabolic regulatory functions of sirtuins. Cell metabolism7(2), 104-112.

Jiang, W. J. (2008). Sirtuins: novel targets for metabolic disease in drug development. Biochemical and biophysical research communications373(3), 341-344.

Hipkiss, A. R. (2008). Energy metabolism, altered proteins, sirtuins and ageing: converging mechanisms?. Biogerontology9(1), 49-55.

Chalkiadaki, A., & Guarente, L. (2012). Sirtuins mediate mammalian metabolic responses to nutrient availability. Nature Reviews Endocrinology8(5), 287-296.

Finkel, T., Deng, C. X., & Mostoslavsky, R. (2009). Recent progress in the biology and physiology of sirtuins. Nature460(7255), 587-591.

FASTING … AND AUTOPHAGY

Cuervo, A. M., Bergamini, E., Brunk, U. T., Dröge, W., Ffrench, M., & Terman, A. (2005). Autophagy and aging: the importance of maintaining” clean” cells.Autophagy1(3), 131-140.

Alirezaei, M., Kemball, C. C., Flynn, C. T., Wood, M. R., Whitton, J. L., & Kiosses, W. B. (2010). Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Autophagy6(6), 702-710..

Donati, A., Cavallini, G., Paradiso, C., Vittorini, S., Pollera, M., Gori, Z., & Bergamini, E. (2001). Age-Related Changes in the Autophagic Proteolysis of Rat Isolated Liver Cells Effects of Antiaging Dietary Restrictions. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences56(9), B375-B383.

Kirkegaard, K., Taylor, M. P., & Jackson, W. T. (2004). Cellular autophagy: surrender, avoidance and subversion by microorganisms. Nature Reviews Microbiology2(4), 301-314.

Swanson, M. S. (2006). Autophagy: eating for good health. The Journal of Immunology177(8), 4945-4951..

Nair, U., & Klionsky, D. J. (2011). Activation of autophagy is required for muscle homeostasis during physical exercise. Autophagy7(12), 1405-1406.

FASTING … AND BRAIN HEALTH

Duan, W., Guo, Z., Jiang, H., Ware, M., & Mattson, M. P. (2003). Reversal of behavioral and metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance syndrome, by dietary restriction in mice deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor.Endocrinology144(6), 2446-2453.

Martin, B., Mattson, M. P., & Maudsley, S. (2006). Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: two potential diets for successful brain aging. Ageing research reviews5(3), 332-353.

Alirezaei, M., Kemball, C. C., Flynn, C. T., Wood, M. R., Whitton, J. L., & Kiosses, W. B. (2010). Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Autophagy6(6), 702-710..

Hara, T., Nakamura, K., Matsui, M., Yamamoto, A., Nakahara, Y., Suzuki-Migishima, R., … & Mizushima, N. (2006). Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice. Nature441(7095), 885-889.

Komatsu, M., Waguri, S., Chiba, T., Murata, S., Iwata, J. I., Tanida, I., … & Tanaka, K. (2006). Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice. Nature441(7095), 880-884.

Jaeger, P. A., & Wyss-Coray, T. (2009). All-you-can-eat: autophagy in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. Mol Neurodegener4(1), 16.

Hung, S. Y., Huang, W. P., Liou, H. C., & Fu, W. M. (2009). Autophagy protects neuron from Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Autophagy5(4), 502-510.

Rubinsztein, D. C. (2006). The roles of intracellular protein-degradation pathways in neurodegeneration. Nature443(7113), 780-786.

Anson, R. M., Guo, Z., de Cabo, R., Iyun, T., Rios, M., Hagepanos, A., … & Mattson, M. P. (2003). Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100(10), 6216-6220.

Duan, W., Guo, Z., Jiang, H., Ware, M., Li, X. J., & Mattson, M. P. (2003). Dietary restriction normalizes glucose metabolism and BDNF levels, slows disease progression, and increases survival in huntingtin mutant mice.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100(5), 2911-2916.

Duan, W., Guo, Z., Jiang, H., Ware, M., & Mattson, M. P. (2003). Reversal of behavioral and metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance syndrome, by dietary restriction in mice deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor.Endocrinology144(6), 2446-2453.

Halagappa, V. K. M., Guo, Z., Pearson, M., Matsuoka, Y., Cutler, R. G., LaFerla, F. M., & Mattson, M. P. (2007). Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction ameliorate age-related behavioral deficits in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of disease26(1), 212-220.

FASTING … RELIGION & TRADITION

Sarri, K. O., Higgins, S., & Kafatos, A. G. (2006). Are Religions Healthy? A Review on Religious Recommendations on Diet and Lifestyle. Ecology, Culture, Nutrition, Health and Disease, 7-20.

Salehi, M., & Neghab, M. (2007). Effects of fasting and a medium calorie balanced diet during the holy month Ramadan on weight, BMI and some blood parameters of overweight males. Pak J Biol Sci10(6), 968-971.

Sarri, K. O., Linardakis, M. K., Bervanaki, F. N., Tzanakis, N. E., & Kafatos, A. G. (2004). Greek Orthodox fasting rituals: a hidden characteristic of the Mediterranean diet of Crete. British Journal of Nutrition92(2), 277-284.

Sarri, K. O., Tzanakis, N. E., Linardakis, M. K., Mamalakis, G. D., & Kafatos, A. G. (2003). Effects of Greek Orthodox Christian Church fasting on serum lipids and obesity. BMC Public Health3(1), 16.

Trepanowski, J. F., & Bloomer, R. J. (2010). The impact of religious fasting on human health. Nutr J9(57).

CARBOHYDRATE & INSULIN

Wong, M. H., Holst, C., Astrup, A., Handjieva-Darlenska, T., Jebb, S. A., Kafatos, A., … & Mutch, D. M. (2012). Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain. PloS one7(8), e42858..

Svendsen, P. F., Jensen, F. K., Holst, J. J., Haugaard, S. B., Nilas, L., & Madsbad, S. (2012). The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation72(5), 410-419..

Mason, C., Foster-Schubert, K. E., Imayama, I., Kong, A., Xiao, L., Bain, C., … & McTiernan, A. (2011). Dietary weight loss and exercise effects on insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. American journal of preventive medicine,41(4), 366-375..

Rizza, R. A., Mandarino, L. J., & Gerich, J. E. (1982). Effects of growth hormone on insulin action in man: mechanisms of insulin resistance, impaired suppression of glucose production, and impaired stimulation of glucose utilization. Diabetes31(8), 663-669.

… INSULIN RESISTANCE AND FAT

Frayn, K. N. (2001, August). Adipose tissue and the insulin resistance syndrome. In PROCEEDINGS-NUTRITION SOCIETY OF LONDON (Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 375-380). CABI Publishing; 1999. Boden, G.,

Boden, G., Chen, X., Ruiz, J., White, J. V., & Rossetti, L. (1994). Mechanisms of fatty acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Journal of Clinical Investigation93(6), 2438.

… AND AGEING

Kassi, E., & Papavassiliou, A. G. (2008). Point of View: Could glucose be a proaging factor?. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine12(4), 1194-1198.

Lionetti, L., Mollica, M. P., Lombardi, A., Cavaliere, G., Gifuni, G., & Barletta, A. (2009). From chronic overnutrition to insulin resistance: the role of fat-storing capacity and inflammation. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases,19(2), 146-152.

Ling, P. R., Smith, R. J., & Bistrian, B. R. (2007). Acute effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on hepatic oxidative stress and the systemic inflammatory response in rats. Critical care medicine35(2), 555..

… AND FASTING

Norrelund, H., Nielsen, S., Christiansen, J. S., Jorgensen, J. O., & Moller, N. (2004). Modulation of basal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by growth hormone and free fatty acids during short-term fasting. European journal of endocrinology150(6), 779-787.

Halberg, N., Henriksen, M., Söderhamn, N., Stallknecht, B., Ploug, T., Schjerling, P., & Dela, F. (2005). Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. Journal of applied physiology99(6), 2128-2136

Bergman, B. C., Cornier, M. A., Horton, T. J., & Bessesen, D. H. (2007). Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism,293(4), E1103-E1111.

… AND FAT BURNING

Boden, G., Chen, X., Ruiz, J., White, J. V., & Rossetti, L. (1994). Mechanisms of fatty acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Journal of Clinical Investigation93(6), 2438..

Norrelund, H., Nielsen, S., Christiansen, J. S., Jorgensen, J. O., & Moller, N. (2004). Modulation of basal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by growth hormone and free fatty acids during short-term fasting. European journal of endocrinology150(6), 779-787.

GROWTH HORMONE

Strobl, J. S., & Thomas, M. J. (1994). Human growth hormone.Pharmacological reviews46(1), 1-34.

Salomon, F., Cuneo, R. C., Hesp, R., & Sönksen, P. H. (1989). The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine321(26), 1797-1803.

Lang I, Schernthaner G, Pietschmann P, Kurz R, Stephenson JM & Templ, H. (1987). Effects of sex and age on growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in healthy individuals.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism65(3), 535-540.

Vendelbo, M. H., Jørgensen, J. O., Pedersen, S. B., Gormsen, L. C., Lund, S., Schmitz, O., … & Møller, N. (2010). Exercise and fasting activate growth hormone-dependent myocellular signal transducer and activator of transcription-5b phosphorylation and insulin-like growth factor-I messenger ribonucleic acid expression in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism95(9), E64-E68.

… AND FASTING

Moller, L., Dalman, L., Norrelund, H., Billestrup, N., Frystyk, J., Moller, N., & Jorgensen, J. O. L. (2009). Impact of fasting on growth hormone signaling and action in muscle and fat. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism94(3), 965-972.

Nørrelund, H. (2005). The metabolic role of growth hormone in humans with particular reference to fasting. Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society15(2), 95.

… AND AGE

Corpas, E., Harman, S. M., & Blackman, M. R. (1993). Human growth hormone and human aging. Endocrine reviews14(1), 20-39.

FINKELSTEIN, J. W., ROFFWARG, H. P., BOYAR, R. M., KREAM, J., & HELLMAN, L. (1972). Age-related change in the twenty-four hour spontaneous secretion of growth hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,35(5), 665-670.

… AND FAT BURNING

Oscarsson, J., Ottosson, M., & Eden, S. (1998). Effects of growth hormone on lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. Journal of endocrinological investigation,22(5 Suppl), 2-9.

Asayama, K., Amemiya, S., Kusano, S., & Kato, K. (1984). Growth-hormone-induced changes in postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase activities. Metabolism33(2), 129-131.

Cuneo, R. C., Salomon, F., Watts, G. F., Hesp, R., & Sönksen, P. H. (1993). Growth hormone treatment improves serum lipids and lipoproteins in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Metabolism42(12), 1519-1523.

Oscarsson, J., Ottosson, M., Vikman-Adolfsson, K., Frick, F., Enerback, S., Lithell, H., & Edén, S. (1999). GH but not IGF-I or insulin increases lipoprotein lipase activity in muscle tissues of hypophysectomised rats. Journal of endocrinology160(2), 247-255.

… AND EATING

Cornford, A. S., Barkan, A. L., & Horowitz, J. F. (2011). Rapid suppression of growth hormone concentration by overeating: potential mediation by hyperinsulinemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism96(3), 824-830.

Tannenbaum, G. S., Epelbaum, J., & Bowers, C. Y. (2003). Interrelationship between the novel peptide ghrelin and somatostatin/growth hormone-releasing hormone in regulation of pulsatile growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology,144(3), 967-974.

Vakili, H., Jin, Y., & Cattini, P. A. (2012). Negative regulation of human growth hormone gene expression by insulin is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor binding in primary non-tumor pituitary cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry,287(40), 33282-33292.

Tannenbaum, G. S., Guyda, H. J., & Posner, B. I. (1983). Insulin-like growth factors: a role in growth hormone negative feedback and body weight regulation via brain. Science220(4592), 77-79.

Cappon, J. P., Ipp, E., Brasel, J. A., & Cooper, D. M. (1993). Acute effects of high fat and high glucose meals on the growth hormone response to exercise.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism76(6), 1418-1422.

Lanzi, R., Luzi, L., Caumo, A., Andreotti, A. C., Manzoni, M. F., Malighetti, M. E., … & Pontiroli, A. E. (1999). Elevated insulin levels contribute to the reduced growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone in obese subjects.Metabolism48(9), 1152-1156.

… AND BODY COMPOSITION (MORE MUSCLE LESS FAT)

Mauras, N., O’Brien, K. O., Welch, S., Rini, A., Helgeson, K., Vieira, N. E., & Yergey, A. L. (2000). Insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH-deficient humans: differential effects on protein, glucose, lipid, and calcium metabolism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,85(4), 1686-1694.

Salomon, F., Cuneo, R. C., Hesp, R., & Sönksen, P. H. (1989). The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine321(26), 1797-1803.

Binnerts, A., Swart, G. R., Wilson, J. H., Hoogerbrugge, N., Pois, H. A., Birkenhager, J. C., & Lamberts, S. W. (1992). The effect of growth hormone administration in growth hormone deficient adults on bone, protein, carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis, as well as on body composition. Clinical Endocrinology37(1), 79-87.

Rennie, M. J. (2003). Claims for the anabolic effects of growth hormone: a case of the Emperor’s new clothes?. British journal of sports medicine37(2), 100-105.

… AND WHY TOO MUCH IS NOT A GOOD THING

Dominici, F. P., Argentino, D. P., Muñoz, M. C., Miquet, J. G., Sotelo, A. I., & Turyn, D. (2005). Influence of the crosstalk between growth hormone and insulin signalling on the modulation of insulin sensitivity. Growth hormone & IGF research15(5), 324-336.

OBESITY AND OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENT

Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Hall, K. D., McPherson, K., Finegood, D. T., Moodie, M. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet378(9793), 804-814.

Cutler, D., Glaeser, E., & Shapiro, J. (2003). Why have Americans become more obese? (No. w9446). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Calle, E. E., & Kaaks, R. (2004). Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nature Reviews Cancer,4(8), 579-591.

Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Hall, K. D., McPherson, K., Finegood, D. T., Moodie, M. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet378(9793), 804-814.

Jeffery, R. W., & Harnack, L. J. (2007). Evidence implicating eating as a primary driver for the obesity epidemic. Diabetes56(11), 2673-2676.

Giskes, K., Van Lenthe, F., Avendano‐Pabon, M., & Brug, J. (2011). A systematic review of environmental factors and obesogenic dietary intakes among adults: are we getting closer to understanding obesogenic environments?. Obesity reviews12(5), e95-e106.

Adam, T. C., & Epel, E. S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system.Physiology & Behavior91(4), 449-458

Ravussin, E., & Bogardus, C. (1990). Energy expenditure in the obese: is there a thrifty gene?. Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy17(2), 108-112.

Speakman, J. R. (2008). Thrifty genes for obesity, an attractive but flawed idea, and an alternative perspective: the ‘drifty gene’hypothesis. International journal of obesity32(11), 1611-1617.

Speakman, J. R. (2006). Thrifty genes for obesity and the metabolic syndrome—time to call off the search?. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research3(1), 7-11.

Weisberg, S. P., McCann, D., Desai, M., Rosenbaum, M., Leibel, R. L., & Ferrante, A. W. (2003). Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation112(12), 1796-1808.

CALORIC RESTRICTION DIETS & HEALTH

Holloszy, J. O., & Fontana, L. (2007). Caloric restriction in humans.Experimental gerontology42(8), 709-712.

Fontana, L., & Klein, S. (2007). Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association297(9), 986-994.

Dixit, V. D. (2008). Adipose-immune interactions during obesity and caloric restriction: reciprocal mechanisms regulating immunity and health span.Journal of leukocyte biology84(4), 882-892.

Morgan, T., Wong, A., & Finch, C. (2006). Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of dietary restriction in slowing aging processes.

Masoro, E. J. (2005). Overview of caloric restriction and ageing. Mechanisms of ageing and development126(9), 913-922.

Fontana, L. (2009). Neuroendocrine factors in the regulation of inflammation: excessive adiposity and calorie restriction. Experimental gerontology44(1), 41-45.

Lane, M. A., Ingram, D. K., & Roth, G. S. (1999). Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.Toxicological Sciences52(suppl 1), 41-48.

Lane, M. A., Black, A., Handy, A., Tilmont, E. M., Ingram, D. K., & Roth, G. S. (2001). Caloric restriction in primates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences928(1), 287-295.

Bordone, L., & Guarente, L. (2005). Calorie restriction, SIRT1 and metabolism: understanding longevity. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology6(4), 298-305. 

INFLAMMATION

… AND HORMONES (INSULIN)

Dandona, P., Aljada, A., Chaudhuri, A., Mohanty, P., & Garg, R. (2005). Metabolic Syndrome A Comprehensive Perspective Based on Interactions Between Obesity, Diabetes, and Inflammation. Circulation111(11), 1448-1454.

Shoelson, S. E., Lee, J., & Goldfine, A. B. (2006). Inflammation and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation116(7), 1793-1801.

… AND DIET

Esposito, K., Nappo, F., Marfella, R., Giugliano, G., Giugliano, F., Ciotola, M., … & Giugliano, D. (2002). Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are acutely increased by hyperglycemia in humans role of oxidative stress. Circulation,106(16), 2067-2072.

… AND FASTING

Johnson, J. B., Summer, W., Cutler, R. G., Martin, B., Hyun, D. H., Dixit, V. D., … & Mattson, M. P. (2007). Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Free Radical Biology and Medicine,42(5), 665-674.

Aksungar, F. B., Topkaya, A. E., & Akyildiz, M. (2007). Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and biochemical parameters during prolonged intermittent fasting.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism51(1), 88-95.

… AND DISEASE

Dandona, P., Aljada, A., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (2004). Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes. Trends in immunology25(1), 4-7.

Loffreda, S., Yang, S. Q., Lin, H. Z., Karp, C. L., Brengman, M. L., Wang, D. J., & Diehl, A. M. (1998). Leptin regulates proinflammatory immune responses. The FASEB Journal12(1), 57-65.

DISEASE

Varady, K. A., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2008). Do calorie restriction or alternate‐day fasting regimens modulate adipose tissue physiology in a way that reduces chronic disease risk?. Nutrition reviews66(6), 333-342.

CANCER & DIET, CHEMO, IGF1, INFLAMMATION

NOTE: fasting is not a treatment for cancer!

Grivennikov, S. I., Greten, F. R., & Karin, M. (2010). Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell140(6), 883-899.

Aggarwal, B. B., Vijayalekshmi, R. V., & Sung, B. (2009). Targeting inflammatory pathways for prevention and therapy of cancer: short-term friend, long-term foe. Clinical Cancer Research15(2), 425-430.

Lee, C., & Longo, V. D. (2011). Fasting vs dietary restriction in cellular protection and cancer treatment: from model organisms to patients. Oncogene,30(30), 3305-3316.

Safdie, F. M., Dorff, T., Quinn, D., Fontana, L., Wei, M., Lee, C., … & Longo, V. D. (2009). Fasting and cancer treatment in humans: A case series report.Aging (Albany NY)1(12), 988. report. Aging. 2009;1(12):1-20

Varady, K. A., Roohk, D. J., McEvoy-Hein, B. K., Gaylinn, B. D., Thorner, M. O., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2008). Modified alternate-day fasting regimens reduce cell proliferation rates to a similar extent as daily calorie restriction in mice. The FASEB Journal22(6), 2090-2096.

Varady, K. A., Roohk, D. J., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2007). Dose effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on in vivo cell proliferation and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice. Journal of Applied Physiology103(2), 547-551.

Azab, M., Khabour, O. F., Al-Omari, L., Alzubi, M. A., & Alzoubi, K. (2009). Effect of every-other-day fasting on spontaneous chromosomal damage in rat’s bone-marrow cells. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A,72(5), 295-300.

Johnson, J. B., John, S., & Laub, D. R. (2009). Pretreatment with alternate day modified fast will permit higher dose and frequency of cancer chemotherapy and better cure rates. Medical hypotheses72(4), 381-382.

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

Bhutani, S., Klempel, M. C., Berger, R. A., & Varady, K. A. (2010). Improvements in coronary heart disease risk indicators by alternate-day fasting involve adipose tissue modulations. Obesity.

Varady, K. A., Hudak, C. S., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2009). Modified alternate-day fasting and cardioprotection: relation to adipose tissue dynamics and dietary fat intake. Metabolism58(6), 803-811.

Varady, K. A., Bhutani, S., Klempel, M. C., & Lamarche, B. (2011). Improvements in LDL particle size and distribution by short-term alternate day modified fasting in obese adults. British Journal of Nutrition105(04), 580-583.

Castello, L., Froio, T., Maina, M., Cavallini, G., Biasi, F., Leonarduzzi, G., … & Chiarpotto, E. (2010). Alternate-day fasting protects the rat heart against age-induced inflammation and fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative damage and NF-kB activation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine48(1), 47-54.

APPETITE AND EATING BEHAVIOUR

GENERAL & BEHAVIOURAL

Wing, R. R., Goldstein, M. G., Acton, K. J., Birch, L. L., Jakicic, J. M., Sallis, J. F., … & Surwit, R. S. (2001). Behavioral science research in diabetes lifestyle changes related to obesity, eating behavior, and physical activity.Diabetes care24(1), 117-123.

Hill, Andrew J., Claire FL Weaver, and John E. Blundell. “Food craving, dietary restraint and mood.” Appetite 17.3 (1991): 187-197.

Finlayson, Graham, Neil King, and John E. Blundell. “Liking vs. wanting food: importance for human appetite control and weight regulation.”Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 31.7 (2007): 987-1002.

Perri, M. G., & Corsica, J. A. (2002). Improving the maintenance of weight lost in behavioral treatment of obesity. Handbook of obesity treatment1, 357-379.

Teixeira, P. J., Silva, M. N., Coutinho, S. R., Palmeira, A. L., Mata, J., Vieira, P. N., … & Sardinha, L. B. (2009). Mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women. Obesity18(4), 725-735.

Knight, L. J., & Boland, F. J. (1989). Restrained eating: An experimental disentanglement of the disinhibiting variables of perceived calories and food type. Journal of Abnormal Psychology98(4), 412.

Brownell, K. D., & Rodin, J. (1994). The dieting maelstrom: Is it possible and advisable to lose weight?. American Psychologist49(9), 781.

Mahoney, M. J., Moura, N. G., & Wade, T. C. (1973). Relative efficacy of self-reward, self-punishment, and self-monitoring techniques for weight loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology40(3), 404.

Duffey, K. J., & Popkin, B. M. (2011). Energy density, portion size, and eating occasions: contributions to increased energy intake in the United States, 1977–2006. PLoS medicine8(6), e1001050..

Schwarzer, R., & Fuchs, R. (1996). Self-efficacy and health behaviours.Predicting health behaviour, 163-196.

… AND FASTING

Kolaczynski, J. W., Considine, R. V., Ohannesian, J., Marco, C., Opentanova, I., Nyce, M. R., … & Caro, J. F. (1996). Responses of leptin to short-term fasting and refeeding in humans: a link with ketogenesis but not ketones themselves. Diabetes45(11), 1511-1515.

… AND GUT AND FLAVOUR ETC

Horio, N., Jyotaki, M., Yoshida, R., Sanematsu, K., Shigemura, N., & Ninomiya, Y. (2010). New frontiers in gut nutrient sensor research: nutrient sensors in the gastrointestinal tract: modulation of sweet taste sensitivity by leptin. Journal of pharmacological sciences112(1), 8-12.

Brennan, A. M., & Mantzoros, C. S. (2006). Drug Insight: the role of leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology—emerging clinical applications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology2(6), 318-327.

Duffey, K. J., & Popkin, B. M. (2011). Energy density, portion size, and eating occasions: contributions to increased energy intake in the United States, 1977–2006. PLoS medicine8(6), e1001050..

… AND EXERCISE

Martins, C., Morgan, L., & Truby, H. (2008). A review of the effects of exercise on appetite regulation: an obesity perspective. International Journal of Obesity,32(9), 1337-1347.

Thompson, D., Karpe, F., Lafontan, M., & Frayn, K. (2012). Physical activity and exercise in the regulation of human adipose tissue physiology.Physiological Reviews92(1), 157-191.

Blundell, J. E., Stubbs, R. J., Hughes, D. A., Whybrow, S., & King, N. A. (2003). Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society62(03), 651-661.

Melzer, K., Kayser, B., Saris, W. H., & Pichard, C. (2005). Effects of physical activity on food intake. Clinical nutrition24(6), 885-895.

Whybrow, S., Hughes, D. A., Ritz, P., Johnstone, A. M., Horgan, G. W., King, N., … & Stubbs, R. J. (2008). The effect of an incremental increase in exercise on appetite, eating behaviour and energy balance in lean men and women feeding ad libitum. British Journal of Nutrition100(05), 1109-1115.

Unick, J. L., Otto, A. D., Goodpaster, B. H., Helsel, D. L., Pellegrini, C. A., & Jakicic, J. M. (2010). Acute effect of walking on energy intake in overweight/obese women. Appetite55(3), 413-419.

AGEING

DIET & STRESS vs AGEING

Epel, E. S. (2009). Psychological and metabolic stress: a recipe for accelerated cellular aging. Hormones (Athens)8(1), 7-22.

Mastorakos, G., & Pavlatou, M. (2005). Exercise as a stress model and the interplay between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axes. Hormone and Metabolic Research37(09), 577-584.

Hoffman-Goetz, L., & Pedersen, B. K. (1994). Exercise and the immune system: a model of the stress response?. Immunology today15(8), 382-387.

Stratakis, C. A., & Chrousos, G. P. (1995). Neuroendocrinology and pathophysiology of the stress system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences771(1), 1-18.

… AND CAL RESTIRTION

Morgan, T., Wong, A., & Finch, C. (2006). Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of dietary restriction in slowing aging processes.

Fontana, L. (2009). Neuroendocrine factors in the regulation of inflammation: excessive adiposity and calorie restriction. Experimental gerontology44(1), 41-45.

Cuervo, A. M., Bergamini, E., Brunk, U. T., Dröge, W., Ffrench, M., & Terman, A. (2005). Autophagy and aging: the importance of maintaining” clean” cells.Autophagy1(3), 131-140.

 FASTING AS A HORMETIC STRESS

Rattan, S. I., Sejersen, H., Fernandes, R. A., & Luo, W. (2007). Stress‐Mediated Hormetic Modulation of Aging, Wound Healing, and Angiogenesis in Human Cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1119(1), 112-121.

Kouda, K., & Iki, M. (2010). Beneficial effects of mild stress (hormetic effects): dietary restriction and health. Journal of physiological anthropology29(4), 127-132.

Mattson, M. P. (2008). Dietary factors, hormesis and health. Ageing research reviews7(1), 43-48.

… AGEING

Veldhuis, J. D. (2008). Aging and hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis: gonadotropic axis in men and somatotropic axes in men and women. Ageing research reviews7(3), 189-208.

Chung, H. Y., Kim, H. J., Kim, K. W., Choi, J. S., & Yu, B. P. (2002). Molecular inflammation hypothesis of aging based on the anti‐aging mechanism of calorie restriction. Microscopy research and technique59(4), 264-272.

Gehrig Jr, J. J., Ross, J., & Jamison, R. L. (1988). Effect of long-term, alternate day feeding on renal function in aging conscious rats. Kidney international,34(5), 620.

EXERCISE: ANOTHER HORMETIC STRESS

 

FASTING AND ABILITY TO EXERCISE

Schisler, J. A., & Ianuzzo, C. D. (2007). Running to maintain cardiovascular fitness is not limited by short-term fasting or enhanced by carbohydrate supplementation. Journal of physical activity & health4(1), 101.

Nieman, D. C., Carlson, K. A., Brandstater, M. E., Naegele, R. T., & Blankenship, J. W. (1987). Running endurance in 27-h-fasted humans. Journal of Applied Physiology63(6), 2502-2509.

Aziz, A. R., Wahid, M. F., Png, W., & Jesuvadian, C. V. (2010). Effects of Ramadan fasting on 60 min of endurance running performance in moderately trained men. British journal of sports medicine44(7), 516-521.

Zinker, B. A., Britz, K. A. R. E. N., & Brooks, G. A. (1990). Effects of a 36-hour fast on human endurance and substrate utilization. Journal of Applied Physiology69(5), 1849-1855.

Aragón-Vargas, L. F. (1993). Effects of fasting on endurance exercise. Sports Medicine16(4), 255-265

Chaouachi, A., Leiper, J. B., Souissi, N., Coutts, A. J., & Chamari, K. (2009). Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on sports performance and training: a review. Int J Sports Physiol Perform4(4), 419-34.

FASTING AND EX PHYSIOLOGY

Röjdmark, S. (1987). Influence of short-term fasting on the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men. Hormone Research in Paediatrics25(3), 140-146.

Chennaoui, M., Desgorces, F., Drogou, C., Boudjemaa, B., Tomaszewski, A., Depiesse, F., … & Gomez-Merino, D. (2009). Effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters in middle-distance runners. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism34(4), 587-594.

Koubi, H. E., Desplanches, D., Gabrielle, C., Cottet-Emard, J. M., Sempore, B., & Favier, R. J. (1991). Exercise endurance and fuel utilization: a reevaluation of the effects of fasting. Journal of Applied Physiology70(3), 1337-1343

… INFLAMMATION AND HORMESIS

Ji, L. L., GOMEZ‐CABRERA, M. C., & Vina, J. (2006). Exercise and hormesis.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1067(1), 425-435.

Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2008). The influences of diet and exercise on mental health through hormesis. Ageing research reviews7(1), 49-62.

Woods, J. A., Vieira, V. J., & Keylock, K. T. (2009). Exercise, inflammation, and innate immunity. Immunology and allergy clinics of North America29(2), 381-393.

Schaap, L. A., Pluijm, S. M., Deeg, D. J., & Visser, M. (2006). Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength. The American journal of medicine119(6), 526-e9.

Toth, M. J., Matthews, D. E., Tracy, R. P., & Previs, M. J. (2005). Age-related differences in skeletal muscle protein synthesis: relation to markers of immune activation. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism,288(5), E883-E891.

Bruun, J. M., Helge, J. W., Richelsen, B., & Stallknecht, B. (2006). Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism290(5), E961-E967.

… MUSCLE

Newman, A. B., Kupelian, V., Visser, M., Simonsick, E. M., Goodpaster, B. H., Kritchevsky, S. B., . & Harris, T. B. (2006). Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences61(1), 72-77.

Goodpaster, B. H., Park, S. W., Harris, T. B., Kritchevsky, S. B., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A. V., … & Newman, A. B. (2006). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences61(10), 1059-1064.

… MUSCLE & ATHLETES: NUTRITION

Phillips, S. M., Tipton, K. D., Aarsland, A. S. L. E., Wolf, S. E., & Wolfe, R. R. (1997). Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism273(1), E99-E107.

Chesley, A., MacDougall, J. D., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Atkinson, S. A., & Smith, K. (1992). Changes in human muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology73(4), 1383-1388.

Dreyer, H. C., Fujita, S., Cadenas, J. G., Chinkes, D. L., Volpi, E., & Rasmussen, B. B. (2006). Resistance exercise increases AMPK activity and reduces 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. The Journal of physiology576(2), 613-624

Aragon, A. A., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (2013). Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition10(1), 5.

Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition,136(2), 533S-537S.

Glynn, E. L., Fry, C. S., Drummond, M. J., Timmerman, K. L., Dhanani, S., Volpi, E., & Rasmussen, B. B. (2010). Excess leucine intake enhances muscle anabolic signaling but not net protein anabolism in young men and women. The Journal of nutrition140(11), 1970-1976.

Tipton, K. D., Elliott, T. A., Cree, M. G., Aarsland, A. A., Sanford, A. P., & Wolfe, R. R. (2007). Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism292(1), E71-E76

Jentjens, R., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2003). Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery. Sports Medicine33(2), 117-144.

… AND FASTING

Rennie, M. J., Edwards, R. H. T., Halliday, D., Matthews, D. E., Wolman, S. L., & Millward, D. J. (1982). Muscle protein synthesis measured by stable isotope techniques in man: the effects of feeding and fasting. Clinical Science,63, 519-523.

Biolo, G., Tipton, K. D., Klein, S., & Wolfe, R. R. (1997). An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein.American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism273(1), E122-E129..

Nørrelund, H., Nair, K. S., Jørgensen, J. O. L., Christiansen, J. S., & Møller, N. (2001). The protein-retaining effects of growth hormone during fasting involve inhibition of muscle-protein breakdown. Diabetes50(1), 96-104.

Nørrelund, H., Nair, K. S., Nielsen, S., Frystyk, J., Ivarsen, P., Jørgensen, J. O. L., … & Møller, N. (2003). The decisive role of free fatty acids for protein conservation during fasting in humans with and without growth hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism88(9), 4371-4378.

Møller, N., & Nørrelund, H. (2004). The role of growth hormone in the regulation of protein metabolism with particular reference to conditions of fasting. Hormone Research in Paediatrics59(Suppl. 1), 62-68.

Dohm, G. L., Beeker, R. T., Israel, R. G., & Tapscott, E. B. (1986). Metabolic responses to exercise after fasting. Journal of applied physiology61(4), 1363-1368.

Nair, U., & Klionsky, D. J. (2011). Activation of autophagy is required for muscle homeostasis during physical exercise. Autophagy7(12), 1405-1406.

Sandri, M. (2010). Autophagy in health and disease. 3. Involvement of autophagy in muscle atrophy. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology,298(6), C1291-C1297.

Moller, L., Dalman, L., Norrelund, H., Billestrup, N., Frystyk, J., Moller, N., & Jorgensen, J. O. L. (2009). Impact of fasting on growth hormone signaling and action in muscle and fat. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism94(3), 965-972.

REACTIONS TO FASTING 

… HEADACHE? (READ: HYDRATION)

Torelli, P., Evangelista, A., Bini, A., Castellini, P., Lambru, G., & Manzoni, G. C. (2009). Fasting headache: a review of the literature and new hypotheses.Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain49(5), 744-752.

Abu-Salameh, I., Plakht, Y., & Ifergane, G. (2010). Migraine exacerbation during Ramadan fasting. The Journal of headache and pain11(6), 513-517.

Mosek, A., & Korczyn, A. D. (1999). Fasting headache, weight loss, and dehydration. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain39(3), 225-227.

… BLOOD SUGAR

Alkén, J., Petriczko, E., & Marcus, C. (2007). Effect of fasting on young adults who have symptoms of hypoglycemia in the absence of frequent meals.European journal of clinical nutrition62(6), 721-726.

Orban, Z., Remaley, A. T., Sampson, M., Trajanoski, Z., & Chrousos, G. P. (1999). The differential effect of food intake and β-adrenergic stimulation on adipose-derived hormones and cytokines in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism84(6), 2126-2133.

Chan, J. L., Mietus, J. E., Raciti, P. M., Goldberger, A. L., & Mantzoros, C. S. (2007). Short‐term fasting‐induced autonomic activation and changes in catecholamine levels are not mediated by changes in leptin levels in healthy humans. Clinical endocrinology66(1), 49-57.

COGNITION

Lieberman, H. R., Caruso, C. M., Niro, P. J., Adam, G. E., Kellogg, M. D., Nindl, B. C., & Kramer, F. M. (2008). A double-blind, placebo-controlled test of 2 d of calorie deprivation: effects on cognition, activity, sleep, and interstitial glucose concentrations. The American journal of clinical nutrition88(3), 667-676.

Green, M. W., Elliman, N. A., & Rogers, P. J. (1995). Lack of effect of short-term fasting on cognitive function. Journal of Psychiatric Research29(3), 245-253..

TISSUES AND ORGANS: OTHER

ADIPOSE &DISEASE

Ahima, R. S. (2006). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obesity14, 242S-249S.

Weisberg, S. P., McCann, D., Desai, M., Rosenbaum, M., Leibel, R. L., & Ferrante, A. W. (2003). Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation112(12), 1796-1808.

Tilg, H., & Moschen, A. R. (2006). Adipocytokines: mediators linking adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity. Nature Reviews Immunology6(10), 772-783.

Fantuzzi, G. (2005). Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology115(5), 911-919.

Bulló, M., García‐Lorda, P., Megias, I., & Salas‐Salvadó, J. (2003). Systemic inflammation, adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor, and leptin expression.Obesity Research11(4), 525-531.

Haerle, P., & Straub, R. H. (2006). Leptin is a link between adipose tissue and inflammation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1069(1), 454-462.

Berg, A. H., & Scherer, P. E. (2005). Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation research96(9), 939-949.

Wellen, K. E., & Hotamisligil, G. S. (2003). Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation112(12), 1785-1788.

GUT FUNCTION AND PHYSIOLOGY

Horio, N., Jyotaki, M., Yoshida, R., Sanematsu, K., Shigemura, N., & Ninomiya, Y. (2010). New frontiers in gut nutrient sensor research: nutrient sensors in the gastrointestinal tract: modulation of sweet taste sensitivity by leptin. Journal of pharmacological sciences112(1), 8-12.

DIET AND FOOD GENERAL

Habito, R. C., & Ball, M. J. (2001). Postprandial changes in sex hormones after meals of different composition. Metabolism50(5), 505-511.

Habito, R. C., Montalto, J., Leslie, E., & Ball, M. J. (2000). Effects of replacing meat with soyabean in the diet on sex hormone concentrations in healthy adult males. British Journal of Nutrition84(4), 557-563.

Kurzer, M. S. (2002). Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men. The Journal of nutrition132(3), 570S-573S.

… ALTERING MACRONUTRIENTS LOADS

Layman, D. K., Boileau, R. A., Erickson, D. J., Painter, J. E., Shiue, H., Sather, C., & Christou, D. D. (2003). A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. The Journal of nutrition133(2), 411-417.

Halton, T. L., & Hu, F. B. (2004). The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition23(5), 373-385.

Veldhorst, M., Smeets, A. J. P. G., Soenen, S., Hochstenbach-Waelen, A., Hursel, R., Diepvens, K.. & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. (2008). Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiology & behavior94(2), 300-307.

Paddon-Jones, D., Westman, E., Mattes, R. D., Wolfe, R. R., Astrup, A., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. (2008). Protein, weight management, and satiety.The American journal of clinical nutrition87(5), 1558S-1561S.

Mikkelsen, P. B., Toubro, S., & Astrup, A. (2000). Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24-h energy expenditure: comparisons between animal protein, vegetable protein, and carbohydrate. The American journal of clinical nutrition72(5), 1135-1141.

Barkeling, B., Rössner, S., & Björvell, H. (1990). Effects of a high-protein meal (meat) and a high-carbohydrate meal (vegetarian) on satiety measured by automated computerized monitoring of subsequent food intake, motivation to eat and food preferences. International journal of obesity14(9), 743-751.

Sacks, F. M., Bray, G. A., Carey, V. J., Smith, S. R., Ryan, D. H., Anton, S. D., … & Williamson, D. A. (2009). Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. New England Journal of Medicine360(9), 859-873.

Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Rolland, V., Wilson, S. A. J., & Westerterp, K. R. (1999). Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber.European journal of clinical nutrition53(6), 495-502.

Cotton, J. R., Burley, V. J., Weststrate, J. A., & Bhmdell, J. E. (1994). Dietary fat and appetite: similarities and differences in the satiating effect of meals supplemented with either fat or carbohydrate*†. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics7(1), 11-24.

… BREAKFAST

Schlundt, D. G., Hill, J. O., Sbrocco, T., Pope-Cordle, J., & Sharp, T. (1992). The role of breakfast in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition55(3), 645-651.

Martin, A., Normand, S., Sothier, M., Peyrat, J., Louche-Pelissier, C., & Laville, M. (2000). Is advice for breakfast consumption justified? Results from a short-term dietary and metabolic experiment in young healthy men. British Journal of Nutrition84(03), 337-344.

Brown, Andrew W., Michelle M. Bohan Brown, and David B. Allison. “Belief beyond the evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 98.5 (2013): 1298-1308.

… CARBS NOT ESSENTIAL, BUT USEFUL

Westman, E. C. (2002). Is dietary carbohydrate essential for human nutrition? The American journal of clinical nutrition75(5), 951-953.

Agatston, A. S. (2005). The end of the diet debates? All fats and carbs are not created equal. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine72(10), 946-950.

Azizi, F. (1978). Effect of dietary composition on fasting-induced changes in serum thyroid hormones and thyrotropin. Metabolism27(8), 935-942.

FUNCTION, FASTING, PHYSIOLOGY & SEX DIFFERENCES

Borissova, A. M., Tankova, T., Kirilov, G., & Koev, D. (2005). Gender‐dependent effect of ageing on peripheral insulin action. International journal of clinical practice59(4), 422-426.

Paula, F. J., Pimenta, W. P., Saad, M. J., Paccola, G. M., Piccinato, C. E., & Foss, M. C. (1989). Sex-related differences in peripheral glucose metabolism in normal subjects. Diabete & metabolisme16(3), 234-239.

Mittendorfer, B., Horowitz, J. F., & Klein, S. (2001). Gender differences in lipid and glucose kinetics during short-term fasting. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism281(6), E1333-E1339.

… APPETITE

Asarian, L., & Geary, N. (2006). Modulation of appetite by gonadal steroid hormones. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences361(1471), 1251-1263.

Dye, L., & Blundell, J. E. (1997). Menstrual cycle and appetite control: implications for weight regulation. Human reproduction12(6), 1142-1151..

Alonso-Alonso, M., Ziemke, F., Magkos, F., Barrios, F. A., Brinkoetter, M., Boyd, I., … & Mantzoros, C. S. (2011). Brain responses to food images during the early and late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy young women: relation to fasting and feeding. The American journal of clinical nutrition94(2), 377-384.

… FASTING IN WOMEN

Soeters, M. R., Sauerwein, H. P., Groener, J. E., Aerts, J. M., Ackermans, M. T., Glatz, J. F., … & Serlie, M. J. (2007). Gender-related differences in the metabolic response to fasting. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,92(9), 3646-3652.

Klempel, M. C., Kroeger, C. M., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J. F., & Varady, K. A. (2012). Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women. Nutr J11(98), 4.

Harvie, M. N., Pegington, M., Mattson, M. P., Frystyk, J., Dillon, B., Evans, G., … & Howell, A. (2010). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women. International journal of obesity35(5), 714-727.

Soules, M. R., Merriggiola, M. C., Steiner, R. A., Clifton, D. K., Toivola, B., & Bremner, W. J. (1994). Short‐term fasting in normal women: absence of effects on gonadotrophin secretion and the menstrual cycle. Clinical endocrinology,40(6), 725-731.

Bergman, B. C., Cornier, M. A., Horton, T. J., & Bessesen, D. H. (2007). Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism,293(4), E1103-E1111.

Alvero, R., Kimzey, L., Sebring, N., Reynolds, J., Loughran, M., Nieman, L., & Olson, B. R. (1998). Effects of fasting on neuroendocrine function and follicle development in lean women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,83(1), 76-80.

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